However, it is also of prime importance to ensure safety of the residents of the building once it is completed. There are different risks associated with the construction procedure encompassing erection of the steel frame, capability of any temporary structures to upkeep everyday operation, and the steadiness of any structures on site.
There are different instances which have occurred in the past like the Union Carbide building in Toronto, Husky Stadium in Washington, and the Big Blue Crane collapses at Miller Park in Milwaukee which showcase the failure of stability of steel structures during construction.
An engineer’s job is to make sure that the building constructed is resistant to human or natural accidents for a long time. It is very significant for engineers to make sure that they are taking into consideration the design loads and codes while designing the building. This will make sure that the safety of the residents is ensured when they start relocating in the building after completion.
Major deterrents for engineers, and overcoming them via effective project handling
Structure magazine ran a campaign and researched for buildings which had collapsed due to structural issues during construction between the years 1990 and 2008 and had resulted into moralities and wounds. There were 96 occurrences reported out of which 60 were of those steel structures that had different types of steel structures irrespective of being temporary or permanent.
Another instance is of way back in the year 1986 when the UW Husky’s stadium was being extended. The collapse might have been evaded if the wires were not cut out of order during the annihilation of the roof structure.
As mentioned earlier, Union Carbide building collapse which occurred in the year 1958 which was not 100% preventable due to the unavoidable circumstances, but if the construction would have been done with addition of concrete spandrel beams tactically with the rest of the structure this collapse could have been avoided. In another instance, Mother Nature gave an indication of something might not happen right which was the case of Big Blue Crane at Miller Park.
There were multiple issues some natural and some man-made which could have been evaded if there was additional supervision. We all know that construction is a very costly affair and getting the project done swiftly can mean that you are using cheaper material to get the task done quickly. This can prove very costly as there is lot of risk involved with it and the amount of money that can be saved cannot be evaluated in terms of the lives of men and women that work on the construction facilities daily.
Causes of Failure:
It is very difficult to blame anyone in case of failure of construction. But there is often more than one cause of a collapse. In the instance of Big Blue Crane collapse, it was a blend of wind loads, rough ground and pendulum gesture of the hoisted land. The Union Carbide Building collapsed due to weather and utilization of inadequate provisional bracing.
It has often been observed that structural engineers are hardly consulted when it comes to approaches to construction till the time things go haywire. After which it is very difficult for an engineer to ensure that they do not repeat the same mistake in future. But it often assists in cases where you can ask the engineer to have exact specifications related to a structure’s construction.
Thorough Analysis to Gauge Causes of Failure and Effective Engineering
Using CAE capabilities can also be helpful in gauging the full effect of various parameters that can affect a buildings structure. A complete analysis and design optimization can help detect and eliminate any possibilities of threat to occupants.
According to ACCE (2000) guidelines, “The Constructor must have the comprehension of the influence of the design disciplines’ procedures. The constructor must be able to express themselves to the design professionals and should have the knack of contributing during the planning stage of design-build projects.”
It is very significant for the structural engineers to take into consideration various codes and regulations before designing the construction. There are different codes encompassing ASCE 7 which ensures the time to determine the loads the building will be intended for.
ASCE 37 is an extended version of ASCE which encompasses design loads on structures all through the construction process. But ASCE 37 also raises various issues, which is the basic reason why, it is not integrated in classrooms till date. But if a structural engineer has rudimentary information, pertaining to ASCE 37 some of the instances of accidents can be eradicated.
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